With the many different variations names and meanings of diets today, it is very easy to become confused! What are the rules of the flexitarian diet? What´s the difference between the Paleo and Keto diet? What are the health benefits of a dairy free diet? And what on Earth is the Macrobiotic diet??

Don’t panic! We are here to help you get up to date with the World of Nutrition! La Española has compiled a fantastic guide to the most popular food trends and diets today. There are so many delicious and nutritious diets we decided to split the dictionary in two parts! Below we have listed 10 of the 23 diets! Stay tuned for part II with the remaining 13!  

The-Food-Trend-Dictionary-23-Of-T

Disclaimer: Aside from the healthy, safe and universally-applauded Mediterranean diet we love, La Española does not support or condone any one diet or lifestyle choice and does not claim to have any scientific research backing many of the following diets. We encourage our readers to do their own research and consult a medical professional before embarking on a new diet plan. 

1. Vegetarian

What it is: A diet that completely eliminates meat.
What’s not allowed: Meat of any type.
Pros: Low in saturated fat. Vegetarians often have lower blood pressure levels and are less likely to experience obesity and diabetes.
Cons: Lower protein and vitamin B12 intake, higher risk of iron deficiency.

2. Vegan

What it is: A diet and lifestyle that abstains from the consumption (or use, in many cases) of animal products. Many refer to veganism as a form of “plant-based diet”.
What’s not allowed: Any byproduct of animal agriculture. Meat, eggs, dairy, seafood are not consumed, and even clothing cannot come from animals.
Pros: Lower risk of heart disease, Alzheimer’s and cancer. Weight loss. A highly ethical and cruelty-free lifestyle.
Cons: It’s often difficult to find vegan produce in certain areas, although it’s becoming more and more commonplace. Vegans often lack vital vitamins and nutrients. Higher risk of anemia, hormonal issues and depression.

3. Flexitarian

What it is: A plant-based diet much like that of a vegetarian, but that occasionally allows consumption of meat.
What’s not allowed: eat (although consumed occasionally).
Pros: Weight loss and reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes and cancer. A balanced, easy to follow diet that promotes environmental sustainability and lower meat consumption.
Cons: Followers are more likely to be deficient in zinc, Vitamin B12, iron and omega-3.

4. Ketogenic (“Keto”)

What it is: The ketogenic diet is a diet that consists of a high fat intake and low carb intake.
What’s not allowed: Grains (pasta, rice etc), juice, soft drink, low fat dairy products, snack foods (like chips), beans and lentils, any carbohydrates.
Pros: Weight loss (as the body burns fat over carbs), lower rates of diabetes and Alzheimer’s. The ketogenic diet is often prescribed as a well-researched treatment for epilepsy. You also get to eat a lot of foods traditionally seen as “unhealthy”.
Cons: High in saturated fat, which increases the risk of heart disease. Those commencing the ketogenic diet may experience headaches, fatigue, nausea and hunger at the beginning.

5. Paleolithic (“Paleo”)

What it is: A diet that only allows consumption of foods that were available in the Paleolithic “caveman” era. Commonly referred to as “the caveman diet”. The fad “Dukan Diet” and the “Whole 30” diet are similar to the Paleo diet.
What’s not allowed: Processed foods, pasta, bread, rice, beans, lentils, sugar, dairy products, grains, soft drinks, oils, trans fats,
Pros: High in protein, additive and preservative free, weight loss.
Cons: Vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Low energy. Limited food options to choose from, and available paleo products can be expensive.

6. Pescetarian

What it is: Similar to a vegetarian, but allows the consumption of fish and seafood.
What’s not allowed: Red meat, poultry. Some pescetarians also do not consume eggs and dairy.                                                                                                            Pros: Reduced risk of heart disease, obesity, diabetes, arthritis, anemia and cancer. High fibre, omega 3 and iron intake and limited saturated fat intake. Lessens the impact of land animal agriculture on the planet.
Cons: The potential for higher intake of mercury, seafood is often expensive and some pescetarians gain weight due to the allowable dairy and carb intake.

Here’s a perfect recipe for any pescetarians out there! Let us know how you get on with this Gilthead baked!

7. Omnivore

What it is: A diet that allows consumption of both plant and animal products.
What’s not allowed: Everything is allowed as omnivores eat what is available, when it is available.
Pros: Easy to follow and suits most lifestyles. Most people follow this diet plan instinctively. It allows most food and drink items and is not restrictive. Provides most essential vitamins and nutrients. The ultimate “balanced diet”.
Cons: Higher risk of cancer, obesity, diabetes or heart disease. Weight gain and faster ageing process.

8. Mediterranean diet

What it is: A healthy, balanced diet born from the lifestyle habits of those in a range of Mediterranean countries. Variations of this diet include the MIND Diet and the DASH diet.
What’s not allowed: Everything is allowed, but meat and dairy products are eaten in moderation, while fresh fruit and vegetables, legumes, fish and olive oil can be enjoyed any time.
Pros: Recently named the healthiest diet in the world. Low rates of obesity, heart disease, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, early death and cancer. Increased vitality and better mood, lower risk of depression and anxiety, weight loss.
Cons: If you love meat, the Mediterranean Diet only allows low intake of this. Other than that - it’s only positive!

9. Low-carb diet

What it is: A diet that restricts high carbohydrate intake. The Atkins Diet, Zone, South Beach and Ketogenic diets are variations of the Low-Carb Diet.
What’s not allowed: Most carbohydrates, grains, legumes, fruit, bread, pasta, nuts, seeds and starchy vegetables.
Pros: Weight loss, lower cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, reduced appetite, reduced blood sugar and insulin levels.                                                                     Cons: A restrictive diet that eliminates many readily-available food products. Increased rates of constipation, headache, cancer, bad breath and a range vitamin and nutrient deficiencies.

10. Pollotarian

What it is: A vegetarian lifestyle that doesn’t allow red meat, but does allow turkey, chicken and poultry products.
What’s not allowed: Red meat. Some pollotarians also don’t eat dairy, eggs, fish or seafood.
Pros: Lower risk of heart disease, diabetes, certain cancers, lower cholesterol levels. High fibre and antioxidant intake. Potential weight loss.
Cons: Risk of iron, Vitamin B12 and calcium deficiencies if the pollotarian doesn’t include dairy or seafood.